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The Latest News on Cardiovascular Surgery


Renowned pediatric heart surgeonCardiac problems or heart problems are major physical disorders in human beings. There are numerous types of heart disorders with various problems. That is why a proper Cardiovascular Surgery is needed as a solution of each specific type of heart disorder.

Some of the most reputed cardiologists and heart surgeons have come up with new and advanced medical technologies to cure all types of heart problems. Thus, if you are a cardiac patient, you need to keep yourself updated with the latest news.

What is Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure?

Almost half of the patients having heart failure have a normal ejection fraction (EF). Prevalence of this syndrome is called heart failure with a Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF). This syndrome is developed due to risk factors like old age, hyper tension, obesity, renal dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome.

Hypertension is one of the biggest risk factors for HFpEF. Patients with this syndrome are hypersensitive. It is regarded as a diastolic heart failure.

What is Pathophysiology?

The cardiac myocytes at cellular level, in patients with HFpEF, are shorter and thicker than the normal myocytes. Collagen content is also increased. Recent studies have revealed that the reduction in the myocardial capillary density contributes to this phenomenon.

At organ level, the affected individuals might have concentric remodeling with or even without hypertrophy. Increasing stiffness of myocyte is mediated by hypophosphorylation of the sarcomeric molecule titin.

This can take place due to various factors like aging, metabolic syndrome and obesity. With the progress of the disease, the tissues and cell characteristics might become more pronounced.

The diagnosis

Proper diagnoses involves the clinical symptoms associated with heart failures, preserved EF, and cardiac dysfunction evidences. Objective evidences of heart dysfunction are the most critical factor.

Important findings demonstrating heart dysfunctions include evidence of congestion on chest x-ray or physical examinations, diastolic Dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, etc.

The treatment methods

interaction between risk factors, cardiac aging, and loss of cardiovascular reserveClinical trials are not very effective treatments. A subgroup patient analysis in the USA showed benefits on elevated BNP levels. HFpEF is associated with reduced availability of cGMP.

Atrial fibrillation is quite common among the patients with HFpEF. A recent single-center observational study showed improved rates of survival in the patients who received complete revascularization.

The best medical centers

The Mayo Clinic Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona is regarded one of the top hospitals in Cardiovascular Surgery. They have achieved this honor by providing the patients with safety, efficiency, care and advanced treatment methods.

The other features of this medical organization include well-organized management practices and hospital resources. The hospital consists of experienced and highly qualified leading cardiologists and related medical practitioners. They have been awarded with a number of national as well as international awards for achieving excellence in their fields.

The hospital also received many prizes from leading medical associations across the world. These prizes were awarded for pioneering the medical applications of latest technologies for the advancement of proper diagnosis and treatments of severe cardio-vascular disorders.

Therefore, the right Cardiovascular Surgery can be done after proper diagnosis of the cardiac disorder in patients.

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Clinical Dental Hygene Best Practices


dental examination in progressA distinctive characteristic of a high quality profession is its members’ willingness to assume responsibility for the sort of care they provide to the public. In 1985, the Applied Standards of Clinical Dental Hygiene Practice was created by the ADHA as an important step toward fulfilling that responsibility. This document promotes the practice of dental hygiene, and it is also based on those important standards as well as relevant and current scientific evidence.

The Applied Standards of Clinical Dental Hygiene Practice is the guide dental hygienists use on a daily basis, which is also outlined in this document. The Accreditation Standards for Dental Hygiene Education Programs deal with the conduct and structure of education programs on dental hygiene. Dental hygienists are accountable to federal, local, and state regulations and statutes as well as discipline that guide and define professional practice. They must not substitute these standards for their professional clinical judgment.

Dental hygienists are important members of an ever evolving healthcare system. These health professionals provide the oral health protection that groups and individuals alike need. Dental and health science work hard to enhance the health of individuals. By using scientific evidence, dental hygienists can impact a patient’s care right away.

A dental hygienist is supposed to respect the diverse cultures, values, and beliefs present in communities, groups and individuals. Patients must have access to reliable information as well as opportunities to talk with the dental hygienist to make informed decisions without any kind of coercion.

Sometimes a translator or interpreter might be needed to help both patients and dental hygienists communicate effectively. The professional privileges of the dental hygienist must be established considering the rights of groups and individuals. Any decision having an impact on a patient’s health must be addressed by the dental hygienist considering current legal and ethical practices.

Dental Hygiene Practice – A Definition

Dental hygiene is the practice and science of treatment, prevention, and recognition of oral conditions and diseases as an essential component of overall health. This includes planning, diagnosis, assessment, documentation, and evaluation.

A dental hygienist is an oral health professional graduated from an accredited higher education institution, and licensed to provide research, diagnosis, assessment, education, therapeutic, and preventive services. They also work hard to promote optimal oral health.

Dentists and dental hygienists work together to provide optimal oral healthcare to everyone. Their distinct roles augment and complement their practices, creating a co-therapist environment. Since dental hygienists are experts in their field, they are consulted on dental hygiene interventions, dental hygiene decisions, and the like. The specific regulations on dental hygiene vary from state to state.

Practice Setting and ADHA Code of Ethics

Dental Clinic in PracticeDental hygienists can work as healthcare advocates, managers, consultants, administrators, educators, clinicians, and researchers as they have the skills and knowledge required to serve in any private and public work setting. They can also get a job at a wide range of settings including public health clinics, schools, dental offices, nursing homes, and so forth.

The ADHA’s code of ethics requires that dental hygienists maintain their current license, as they are required to practice, including their certifications. They must also show respect for the expertise, knowledge and contributions of dental office staff, dental assistants, dentists, and other healthcare professionals.

Dental hygienists like this Burnsville Dental Office must also incorporate religious and cultural sensitivity in their professional interaction as well as use and access valid, reliable evidence in their clinical decision making.

The Dental Hygiene Process and Diagnosis

A dental hygiene process is a framework designed to meet the individualized needs of the patient. The hygienist will identify the influencing and causative factors for any condition that can be reduced, prevented or eliminated.

A dental hygiene diagnosis is an identification of the attitudes, behaviors, and oral health needs of an individual. The dental hygienist will develop a critical analysis based on evidence and an assessment’s interpretation to reach the necessary conclusions.

A dental hygiene diagnosis provides the basis for any plan of dental hygiene care. The dental therapist will work hard to assess and evaluate any treatment outcome on an on-going basis to find out the need for change in any care plan.

Risk Assessment and Planning

Risk assessment is just the quantitative and qualitative evaluation a dental therapist gathers from an assessment process to find out any risks to a patient’s oral and general health. The data will provide this health professional with the information to design and develop strategies to promote health and limit or prevent disease.

Planning is the process of establishing outcomes and goals based on a patient’s values, expectations, needs, and current scientific evidence. Any dental hygiene plan must be based on a dental hygiene diagnosis and assessment findings. Dental hygienists also make their clinical decisions within a context of legal and ethical principles.

Tobacco and fluoride exposure are some of the factors that a dental hygienist evaluates to find out the level of risk. This healthcare professional also takes into consideration a patient’s dietary practices, nutrition history, systemic conditions/diseases, OTC and prescriptions medications, and many other factors.

Documentation and Evaluation

dental records managementDocumentation is the accurate and complete recording of all treatment, recommendations, data, and other information that might be considered as relevant to the treatment and care of a patient. Evaluation is just the measurement of how successful a dental care plan has been to the client.

The dental hygienist will perform ongoing diagnoses and reassessments that can modify, discontinue, or continue the care plan at any moment in the future. The dental hygienist will also evaluate any outcome of the dental hygiene plan. This healthcare professional must also communicate with dentists, patients, and other dental/health care providers any results of the dental hygiene care.


The Standards for Clinical Dental Hygiene Practice is the resource that dental hygienists use to provide evidence-based and patient-centered care. Dental hygienists have to enhance their skill base and knowledge to keep their competence up to date. The Standards for Clinical Dental Hygiene Practice will change based on state and federal regulations, future scientific evidence, different disease patents, and other factors to assure safety and quality care.

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Updates in Medical Technology: Neurostimulator Device to Cure Epileptic seizures?


Up to 40% of patients living with focal epilepsy have drug resistance seizures despite their use of anti-epileptic drugs for long time. A surgery may not be appropriate to treat such patients depending on the location of the seizure focus. Mayo clinic offers a responsive neuro-treatment for people with medically intractable focal epilepsy.

A study they published in March 2014 showed a median 53% reduction in seizure occurrence. These happened in patients 2 years after the device implantation. Additionally the patients who responded positively to the device were 55%.

Dr. Tratum of Mayo clinic says that unlike anti-epileptic drugs whose effectiveness reduces with time in many patients, the device provides continuous improvement.

What is a neurostimulator?

It is a small device almost the size of a stopwatch which delivers mild electrical signals to the epidural space near the spine area. The device consists of thin wires called leads which work in delivering the signals in the spine area.

The electrical signals are important in causing a tingling sensation in the area with chronic pain. The food and drug administration approved the neuro-stimulation device recently but mayo clinic had used it for almost a decade as it began its trials in the year 2005.

How it works

The device provides pain relief by blocking any pain messages before they reach the brain. The mild electrical impulse it sends reaches the brain faster than the pain. Having beaten the pain in speed and arriving there first, instead of feeling the pain the patient will feel the tingling sensation.

The device is a battery powered microprocessor controlled device. Its size is roughly that of an ice cube and therefore a doctor implants it into the skull.

The doctor also implants the leads connected to the device near the seizure focus. Therefore the device easily detects abnormal electrical activity in the body and easily responds to it by delivering some electrical stimulation to normalize the body activity before a person experiences a seizure.

Dr worrel of Mayo Clinic says that the device works in suppressing the seizures before they start. He continues to say that if the pain has already started, stopping it becomes hard.

If a person accidentally skips a medication, he/she may not experience seizures. Dr. Drazkowski says that if a patient happens to be stressed he/she will have a tingling sensation and therefore he/she will easily attend the normal activities.

Battery replacement

If a person will need many thousands stimulation’s in a day, the battery may last for one year. But if a patient will need a few hundred stimulation’s in a day, it may last for four years.

Replacing the battery can happen within 30 minutes and it involves opening of the skin and not the skull. The battery replacement can only happen if the device has improved your life.

Important in collecting data

The device records brain activities and therefore it will potentially yield data about pre seizure brain activities. The knowledge gained from observing epilepsy patients in monitoring units is now essential in getting pre-seizure brain activity data from other patients in outpatient settings.